Vanson Bourne Survey Results

Here are the results from a recent survey conducted by independent researchers, Vanson Bourne, for QTS. 

QTS - VANSON BOURNE

International Survey on Data Center Colocation

 

This independent survey was completed by 500 CIOs, CTOs, IT Directors and Heads of IT of global businesses based in the United States, the United Kingdom, France and Germany. The majority of the respondents (70%) were large enterprises with 3,000+ employees

 

The research was conducted in March 2021 by Vanson Bourne, a specialist research-based technology marketing consultancy offering clients analysis and advice based on incisive and rigorous research into their market environment.

 

The research used an online fieldwork methodology and all research carried out by Vanson Bourne adheres to the latest MRS Code of Conduct. Demographic detailing includes industry sector, country in which the respondents were based and size of business.

 

Organization Size

 

Total

UK

France

Germany

US

Total

500

100%

100

100%

100

100%

100

100%

200

100%

1,000 - 2,999 employees

155

31%

25

25%

38

38%

28

28%

64

32%

3,000 or more employees

345

69%

75

75%

62

62%

72

72%

136

68%

 

Organization Sector

 

Total

UK

France

Germany

US

Total

500

100%

100

100%

100

100%

100

100%

200

100%

IT, technology and telecoms

125

25%

25

25%

25

25%

25

25%

50

25%

Manufacturing

89

18%

12

12%

13

13%

15

15%

49

25%

Financial services

82

16%

25

25%

14

14%

13

13%

30

15%

Retail, distribution and transport

59

12%

17

17%

18

18%

10

10%

14

7%

Business and professional services

43

9%

5

5%

6

6%

21

21%

11

6%

Other commercial sector

102

20%

16

16%

24

24%

16

16%

46

23%

 

 

Among large enterprises (3,000+ employees) the survey revealed

 

  1. Their digital strategy is very important
  2. Digital transformation is increasing their use of colocation as an important part of their digital strategy
  3. Real-time visibility and control over their colocation deployments has increased in importance over the last 12 months
  4. They value the ability of a colocation provider to rapidly scale with their business as the #1 requirement - followed by proven operational maturity, the ability to provide sustainable infrastructure, high-touch customer support, the ability to increase visibility and control over colocation environments and diverse connectivity options.

** The percentages of responses were remarkably similar and consistent across geographies and verticals.

 

Key Findings:

 

  • 94% agree or strongly agree that their digital strategy is central to their success.
    • 79% agree or strongly agree that their digital strategy is rapidly increasing their company's requirements for third-party colocation services
  • 86% agree or strongly agree that third-party colocation provider with a proven pedigree of operational maturity serving the enterprise space is important in its company's selection criteria
  • 80% agree or strongly agree that the ability of a third-party colocation provider to rapidly scale with its business is important
  • 79% agree or strongly agree that access to multiple types of connectivity to support their digital strategy has increased in importance over the last 12 months
  • 71% agree or strongly agree that selecting a third-party colocation partner with the ability to demonstrate sustainable infrastructure and practices has increased in importance over the last 12 months for their organization
  • 68% agree or strongly agree that being able to work with a third-party colocation partner that enables real-time visibility and control of deployments has increased in importance over the last 12 months for their organization.
  • Large enterprise respondents ranked the following in terms of which is the most important requirement when using a third-party colocation data center (1 being most important)
  1. Can scale with my business
  2. Has proven operational maturity
  3. Can provide sustainable infrastructure
  4. Provides high-touch customer support
  5. Can increase visibility and control over my colocation environment
  6. Can offer diverse connectivity options

 

Question 1 - To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statement? "Our company's digital strategy is central to our success"

Total UK France Germany US
Total 500 100% 100 100% 100 100% 100 100% 200 100%
Strongly agree 286 57% 56 56% 42 42% 49 49% 139 70%
Somewhat agree 183 37% 37 37% 48 48% 41 41% 57 29%
Neutral 21 4% 3 3% 7 7% 8 8% 3 2%
Somewhat disagree 6 1% 2 2% 2 2% 1 1% 1 1%
Strongly disagree 4 1% 2 2% 1 1% 1 1% 0 0%
Don’t know 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%

 

 

Total 1,000 - 2,999 employees 3,000 or more employees
Total 500 100% 155 100% 345 100%
Strongly agree 286 57% 81 52% 205 59%
Somewhat agree 183 37% 62 40% 121 35%
Neutral 21 4% 8 5% 13 4%
Somewhat disagree 6 1% 4 3% 2 1%
Strongly disagree 4 1% 0 0% 4 1%
Don’t know 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%

 

Total Business and professional services Financial services IT, technology and telecoms Manufacturing Retail, distribution and transport Other commercial sector
Total 500 100% 43 100% 82 100% 125 100% 89 100% 59 100% 102 100%
Strongly agree 286 57% 21 49% 48 59% 74 59% 52 58% 34 58% 57 56%
Somewhat agree 183 37% 20 47% 27 33% 44 35% 31 35% 23 39% 38 37%
Neutral 21 4% 0 0% 4 5% 6 5% 5 6% 1 2% 5 5%
Somewhat disagree 6 1% 0 0% 3 4% 1 1% 1 1% 0 0% 1 1%
Strongly disagree 4 1% 2 5% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 1 2% 1 1%
Don’t know 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%

 

Question 2 - To what extend do you agree or disagree with the following statement? "Our digital strategy is rapidly increasing my company's requirements for third-party colocation services."

 

Total UK France Germany US
Total 500 100% 100 100% 100 100% 100 100% 200 100%
Strongly agree 154 31% 11 11% 28 28% 40 40% 75 38%
Somewhat agree 246 49% 45 45% 50 50% 45 45% 106 53%
Neutral 57 11% 20 20% 16 16% 11 11% 10 5%
Somewhat disagree 26 5% 14 14% 4 4% 3 3% 5 3%
Strongly disagree 14 3% 7 7% 2 2% 1 1% 4 2%
Don’t know 3 1% 3 3% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%

 

Total 1,000 - 2,999 employees 3,000 or more employees
Total 500 100% 155 100% 345 100%
Strongly agree 154 31% 40 26% 114 33%
Somewhat agree 246 49% 87 56% 159 46%
Neutral 57 11% 18 12% 39 11%
Somewhat disagree 26 5% 7 5% 19 6%
Strongly disagree 14 3% 3 2% 11 3%
Don’t know 3 1% 0 0% 3 1%

 

Total Business and professional services Financial services IT, technology and telecoms Manufacturing Retail, distribution and transport Other commercial sector
Total 500 100% 43 100% 82 100% 125 100% 89 100% 59 100% 102 100%
Strongly agree 154 31% 22 51% 15 18% 43 34% 22 25% 19 32% 33 32%
Somewhat agree 246 49% 15 35% 49 60% 60 48% 48 54% 25 42% 49 48%
Neutral 57 11% 3 7% 12 15% 14 11% 10 11% 10 17% 8 8%
Somewhat disagree 26 5% 1 2% 3 4% 6 5% 5 6% 3 5% 8 8%
Strongly disagree 14 3% 2 5% 1 1% 2 2% 4 4% 2 3% 3 3%
Don’t know 3 1% 0 0% 2 2% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 1 1%

 

Question 3 - To what extend do you agree or disagree with the following statement? "The ability of a third-party colocation provider to rapidly scale with my business is/would be important."

Total UK France Germany US
Total 500 100% 100 100% 100 100% 100 100% 200 100%
Strongly agree 195 39% 24 24% 30 30% 43 43% 98 49%
Somewhat agree 214 43% 42 42% 53 53% 39 39% 80 40%
Neutral 66 13% 22 22% 11 11% 16 16% 17 9%
Somewhat disagree 17 3% 7 7% 5 5% 1 1% 4 2%
Strongly disagree 5 1% 3 3% 1 1% 0 0% 1 1%
Don’t know 3 1% 2 2% 0 0% 1 1% 0 0%

 

 

Total 1,000 - 2,999 employees 3,000 or more employees
Total 500 100% 155 100% 345 100%
Strongly agree 195 39% 56 36% 139 40%
Somewhat agree 214 43% 76 49% 138 40%
Neutral 66 13% 18 12% 48 14%
Somewhat disagree 17 3% 3 2% 14 4%
Strongly disagree 5 1% 1 1% 4 1%
Don’t know 3 1% 1 1% 2 1%

 

Total Business and professional services Financial services IT, technology and telecoms Manufacturing Retail, distribution and transport Other commercial sector
Total 500 100% 43 100% 82 100% 125 100% 89 100% 59 100% 102 100%
Strongly agree 195 39% 20 47% 25 30% 49 39% 30 34% 27 46% 44 43%
Somewhat agree 214 43% 18 42% 41 50% 54 43% 37 42% 25 42% 39 38%
Neutral 66 13% 3 7% 12 15% 18 14% 17 19% 3 5% 13 13%
Somewhat disagree 17 3% 2 5% 3 4% 2 2% 4 4% 2 3% 4 4%
Strongly disagree 5 1% 0 0% 1 1% 0 0% 1 1% 2 3% 1 1%
Don’t know 3 1% 0 0% 0 0% 2 2% 0 0% 0 0% 1 1%

 

Question 4 - To what extend do you agree or disagree with the following statement? "A third-party colocation provider that has a proven pedigree of operational maturity serving the enterprise space is/would be important in my company's selection criteria"

Total UK France Germany US
Total 500 100% 100 100% 100 100% 100 100% 200 100%
Strongly agree 253 51% 41 41% 37 37% 57 57% 118 59%
Slightly agree 183 37% 39 39% 50 50% 30 30% 64 32%
Neutral 48 10% 16 16% 8 8% 10 10% 14 7%
Slightly disagree 9 2% 1 1% 3 3% 2 2% 3 2%
Strongly disagree 4 1% 2 2% 1 1% 0 0% 1 1%
Don’t know 3 1% 1 1% 1 1% 1 1% 0 0%

 

Total 1,000 - 2,999 employees 3,000 or more employees
Total 500 100% 155 100% 345 100%
Strongly agree 253 51% 72 46% 181 52%
Slightly agree 183 37% 65 42% 118 34%
Neutral 48 10% 12 8% 36 10%
Slightly disagree 9 2% 4 3% 5 1%
Strongly disagree 4 1% 1 1% 3 1%
Don’t know 3 1% 1 1% 2 1%

 

Total Business and professional services Financial services IT, technology and telecoms Manufacturing Retail, distribution and transport Other commercial sector
Total 500 100% 43 100% 82 100% 125 100% 89 100% 59 100% 102 100%
Strongly agree 253 51% 33 77% 41 50% 56 45% 34 38% 36 61% 53 52%
Slightly agree 183 37% 9 21% 28 34% 52 42% 41 46% 19 32% 34 33%
Neutral 48 10% 1 2% 10 12% 15 12% 10 11% 2 3% 10 10%
Slightly disagree 9 2% 0 0% 2 2% 0 0% 4 4% 1 2% 2 2%
Strongly disagree 4 1% 0 0% 1 1% 0 0% 0 0% 1 2% 2 2%
Don’t know 3 1% 0 0% 0 0% 2 2% 0 0% 0 0% 1 1%

 

Question 5 - Which of the following best describes your company's digital strategy?

Total UK France Germany US
Total 500 100% 100 100% 100 100% 100 100% 200 100%
Our digital strategy is primarily cloud-based 184 37% 38 38% 31 31% 34 34% 81 41%
Our digital strategy is primarily based on managed hosting and services 134 27% 29 29% 34 34% 27 27% 44 22%
Our digital strategy is colocation-centric 27 5% 4 4% 7 7% 6 6% 10 5%
Our digital strategy is hybrid, incorporating both colocation and access to cloud resources 153 31% 28 28% 28 28% 32 32% 65 33%
Other 1 0% 0 0% 0 0% 1 1% 0 0%
Don’t know 1 0% 1 1% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%

 

 

Total 1,000 - 2,999 employees 3,000 or more employees
Total 500 100% 155 100% 345 100%
Our digital strategy is primarily cloud-based 184 37% 58 37% 126 37%
Our digital strategy is primarily based on managed hosting and services 134 27% 56 36% 78 23%
Our digital strategy is colocation-centric 27 5% 11 7% 16 5%
Our digital strategy is hybrid, incorporating both colocation and access to cloud resources 153 31% 29 19% 124 36%
Other 1 0% 1 1% 0 0%
Don’t know 1 0% 0 0% 1 0%

 

Total Business and professional services Financial services IT, technology and telecoms Manufacturing Retail, distribution and transport Other commercial sector
Total 500 100% 43 100% 82 100% 125 100% 89 100% 59 100% 102 100%
Our digital strategy is primarily cloud-based 184 37% 23 53% 23 28% 51 41% 27 30% 21 36% 39 38%
Our digital strategy is primarily based on managed hosting and services 134 27% 7 16% 30 37% 35 28% 23 26% 13 22% 26 25%
Our digital strategy is colocation-centric 27 5% 1 2% 2 2% 7 6% 6 7% 3 5% 8 8%
Our digital strategy is hybrid, incorporating both colocation and access to cloud resources 153 31% 12 28% 26 32% 32 26% 33 37% 22 37% 28 27%
Other 1 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 1 1%
Don’t know 1 0% 0 0% 1 1% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%


Question 6.1 - Which of the following are/would be the most important requirements for your organization to look for when using a third-party colocation data center? Combination of responses ranked first, second, and third

Total UK France Germany US
Total 500 100% 100 100% 100 100% 100 100% 200 100%
Can scale with my business 296 59% 74 74% 60 60% 50 50% 112 56%
Has proven operational maturity 268 54% 63 63% 51 51% 50 50% 104 52%
Can provide sustainable infrastructure 251 50% 40 40% 59 59% 48 48% 104 52%
Provides high-touch customer support 227 45% 38 38% 43 43% 39 39% 107 54%
Can increase visibility and control over my colocation environment 222 44% 31 31% 41 41% 54 54% 96 48%
Can offer diverse connectivity options 218 44% 45 45% 40 40% 56 56% 77 39%
Other 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Don't know 6 1% 3 3% 2 2% 1 1% 0 0%

 

Total 1,000 - 2,999 employees 3,000 or more employees
Total 500 100% 155 100% 345 100%
Can scale with my business 296 59% 92 59% 204 59%
Has proven operational maturity 268 54% 67 43% 201 58%
Can provide sustainable infrastructure 251 50% 71 46% 180 52%
Provides high-touch customer support 227 45% 82 53% 145 42%
Can increase visibility and control over my colocation environment 222 44% 80 52% 142 41%
Can offer diverse connectivity options 218 44% 73 47% 145 42%
Other 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Don't know 6 1% 0 0% 6 2%

 

Total Business and professional services Financial services IT, technology and telecoms Manufacturing Retail, distribution and transport Other commercial sector
Total 500 100% 43 100% 82 100% 125 100% 89 100% 59 100% 102 100%
Can scale with my business 296 59% 21 49% 47 57% 69 55% 59 66% 44 75% 56 55%
Has proven operational maturity 268 54% 20 47% 46 56% 64 51% 46 52% 32 54% 60 59%
Can provide sustainable infrastructure 251 50% 20 47% 43 52% 65 52% 45 51% 33 56% 45 44%
Provides high-touch customer support 227 45% 22 51% 40 49% 54 43% 43 48% 20 34% 48 47%
Can increase visibility and control over my colocation environment 222 44% 22 51% 35 43% 52 42% 31 35% 28 47% 54 53%
Can offer diverse connectivity options 218 44% 24 56% 29 35% 68 54% 37 42% 20 34% 40 39%
Other 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Don't know 6 1% 0 0% 2 2% 1 1% 2 2% 0 0% 1 1%

 

Question 6.2 - Which of the following are/would be the most important requirements for your organization to look for when using a third-party colocation data center? Responses ranked first. 

Total UK France Germany US
Total 500 100% 100 100% 100 100% 100 100% 200 100%
Can scale with my business 105 21% 31 31% 20 20% 17 17% 37 19%
Has proven operational maturity 101 20% 24 24% 22 22% 16 16% 39 20%
Provides high-touch customer support 79 16% 11 11% 13 13% 14 14% 41 21%
Can provide sustainable infrastructure 76 15% 8 8% 20 20% 17 17% 31 16%
Can offer diverse connectivity options 71 14% 14 14% 13 13% 25 25% 19 10%
Can increase visibility and control over my colocation environment 62 12% 9 9% 10 10% 10 10% 33 17%
Other 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Don't know 6 1% 3 3% 2 2% 1 1% 0 0%

 

 

Total 1,000 - 2,999 employees 3,000 or more employees
Total 500 100% 155 100% 345 100%
Can scale with my business 105 21% 38 25% 67 19%
Has proven operational maturity 101 20% 20 13% 81 23%
Provides high-touch customer support 79 16% 36 23% 43 12%
Can provide sustainable infrastructure 76 15% 20 13% 56 16%
Can offer diverse connectivity options 71 14% 17 11% 54 16%
Can increase visibility and control over my colocation environment 62 12% 24 15% 38 11%
Other 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Don't know 6 1% 0 0% 6 2%

 

Total Business and professional services Financial services IT, technology and telecoms Manufacturing Retail, distribution and transport Other commercial sector
Total 500 100% 43 100% 82 100% 125 100% 89 100% 59 100% 102 100%
Can scale with my business 105 21% 5 12% 25 30% 20 16% 20 22% 16 27% 19 19%
Has proven operational maturity 101 20% 10 23% 10 12% 27 22% 20 22% 14 24% 20 20%
Provides high-touch customer support 79 16% 8 19% 11 13% 24 19% 15 17% 6 10% 15 15%
Can provide sustainable infrastructure 76 15% 8 19% 12 15% 18 14% 17 19% 10 17% 11 11%
Can offer diverse connectivity options 71 14% 6 14% 12 15% 19 15% 7 8% 7 12% 20 20%
Can increase visibility and control over my colocation environment 62 12% 6 14% 10 12% 16 13% 8 9% 6 10% 16 16%
Other 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Don't know 6 1% 0 0% 2 2% 1 1% 2 2% 0 0% 1 1%

 

Question 7 - Has the following increased or decreased in important over the last 12 months for your organization? "Access to multiple types of connectivity to support our digital strategy"

Total UK France Germany US
Total 500 100% 100 100% 100 100% 100 100% 200 100%
Significantly increased in importance 171 34% 13 13% 23 23% 35 35% 100 50%
Somewhat increased in importance 237 47% 53 53% 54 54% 50 50% 80 40%
The importance has remained the same 82 16% 31 31% 22 22% 14 14% 15 8%
Somewhat decreased in importance 8 2% 1 1% 1 1% 1 1% 5 3%
Significantly decreased in importance 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Don’t know 2 0% 2 2% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%

 

Total 1,000 - 2,999 employees 3,000 or more employees
Total 500 100% 155 100% 345 100%
Significantly increased in importance 171 34% 52 34% 119 34%
Somewhat increased in importance 237 47% 81 52% 156 45%
The importance has remained the same 82 16% 22 14% 60 17%
Somewhat decreased in importance 8 2% 0 0% 8 2%
Significantly decreased in importance 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Don’t know 2 0% 0 0% 2 1%

 

Total Business and professional services Financial services IT, technology and telecoms Manufacturing Retail, distribution and transport Other commercial sector
Total 500 100% 43 100% 82 100% 125 100% 89 100% 59 100% 102 100%
Significantly increased in importance 171 34% 21 49% 19 23% 45 36% 27 30% 15 25% 44 43%
Somewhat increased in importance 237 47% 16 37% 45 55% 52 42% 43 48% 38 64% 43 42%
The importance has remained the same 82 16% 6 14% 17 21% 26 21% 15 17% 6 10% 12 12%
Somewhat decreased in importance 8 2% 0 0% 1 1% 1 1% 3 3% 0 0% 3 3%
Significantly decreased in importance 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Don’t know 2 0% 0 0% 0 0% 1 1% 1 1% 0 0% 0 0%

 

Question 8 - Has the following increased or decreased in important over the last 12 months for your organization? "Selecting a third-party colocation partner with the ability to demonstrate sustainable infrastructure and practices"

Total UK France Germany US
Total 500 100% 100 100% 100 100% 100 100% 200 100%
Significantly increased in importance 139 28% 10 10% 26 26% 20 20% 83 42%
Somewhat increased in importance 212 42% 30 30% 45 45% 53 53% 84 42%
The importance has remained the same 129 26% 52 52% 23 23% 24 24% 30 15%
Somewhat decreased in importance 12 2% 2 2% 4 4% 3 3% 3 2%
Significantly decreased in importance 4 1% 2 2% 2 2% 0 0% 0 0%
Don’t know 4 1% 4 4% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%

 

Total 1,000 - 2,999 employees 3,000 or more employees
Total 500 100% 155 100% 345 100%
Significantly increased in importance 139 28% 35 23% 104 30%
Somewhat increased in importance 212 42% 70 45% 142 41%
The importance has remained the same 129 26% 43 28% 86 25%
Somewhat decreased in importance 12 2% 5 3% 7 2%
Significantly decreased in importance 4 1% 2 1% 2 1%
Don’t know 4 1% 0 0% 4 1%

 

Total Business and professional services Financial services IT, technology and telecoms Manufacturing Retail, distribution and transport Other commercial sector
Total 500 100% 43 100% 82 100% 125 100% 89 100% 59 100% 102 100%
Significantly increased in importance 139 28% 17 40% 14 17% 36 29% 23 26% 19 32% 30 29%
Somewhat increased in importance 212 42% 16 37% 40 49% 47 38% 37 42% 25 42% 47 46%
The importance has remained the same 129 26% 10 23% 26 32% 36 29% 24 27% 12 20% 21 21%
Somewhat decreased in importance 12 2% 0 0% 1 1% 4 3% 3 3% 1 2% 3 3%
Significantly decreased in importance 4 1% 0 0% 0 0% 1 1% 1 1% 2 3% 0 0%
Don’t know 4 1% 0 0% 1 1% 1 1% 1 1% 0 0% 1 1%

 

Question 9 - Has the following increased or decreased in important over the last 12 months for your organization? "Being able to work with a third-party colocation partner that enables real-time visibility and control of deployments"

Total UK France Germany US
Total 500 100% 100 100% 100 100% 100 100% 200 100%
Significantly increased in importance 141 28% 13 13% 24 24% 22 22% 82 41%
Somewhat increased in importance 209 42% 35 35% 46 46% 44 44% 84 42%
The importance has remained the same 127 25% 42 42% 26 26% 29 29% 30 15%
Somewhat decreased in importance 15 3% 4 4% 3 3% 4 4% 4 2%
Significantly decreased in importance 4 1% 2 2% 1 1% 1 1% 0 0%
Don’t know 4 1% 4 4% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%

 

Total 1,000 - 2,999 employees 3,000 or more employees
Total 500 100% 155 100% 345 100%
Significantly increased in importance 141 28% 42 27% 99 29%
Somewhat increased in importance 209 42% 76 49% 133 39%
The importance has remained the same 127 25% 29 19% 98 28%
Somewhat decreased in importance 15 3% 6 4% 9 3%
Significantly decreased in importance 4 1% 2 1% 2 1%
Don’t know 4 1% 0 0% 4 1%

 

Total Business and professional services Financial services IT, technology and telecoms Manufacturing Retail, distribution and transport Other commercial sector
Total 500 100% 43 100% 82 100% 125 100% 89 100% 59 100% 102 100%
Significantly increased in importance 141 28% 14 33% 19 23% 34 27% 25 28% 16 27% 33 32%
Somewhat increased in importance 209 42% 19 44% 34 41% 52 42% 31 35% 28 47% 45 44%
The importance has remained the same 127 25% 9 21% 26 32% 32 26% 29 33% 13 22% 18 18%
Somewhat decreased in importance 15 3% 1 2% 2 2% 5 4% 3 3% 0 0% 4 4%
Significantly decreased in importance 4 1% 0 0% 0 0% 1 1% 0 0% 2 3% 1 1%
Don’t know 4 1% 0 0% 1 1% 1 1% 1 1% 0 0% 1 1%